Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology

Online ISSN: 1347-3913, ISSN-L: 1346-8014.

Author's Guide for JACT Article

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The Journal of the Advanced Concrete Technology, JACT, is committed to serve the diverse needs of authors. Modern equipment supporting the electronic media will allow substantial reduction in processing and publication time. Nevertheless, the Editorial Board can only deliver such smooth and fast processing services to those authors, who follow rigorously the instructions in this guide. The recommendations in this guide follow international standards, manuals and advices from literature on technical writing. By following the recommendations of this guide, author(s) will reduce the likelihood of a premature rejection of the article and speed up the publishing process.
The JACT offers to authors a modern design, electronic reprints, online information on the processing status of the articles, electronic archiving and the feedback of a highly-reputed professional organization, the Japan Concrete Institute (JCI). The JACT will be pleased to receive contributions from authors worldwide.

The JACT will primarily publish regular articles, i.e. original scientific papers, review papers, and technical reports on innovative or advanced techniques of concrete industry. Articles should be original and of clear significance, in data or treatment, and be supported by consistent factual record.
Contributions submitted as sets of companion papers must be submitted together. However, they only will be reviewed as separate articles, if the JACT concludes to be this most appropriate and logical presentation of the work. Otherwise, if the JACT determine that the work should be presented as a single article, the manuscripts will be returned to author(s), who may then revise the work and resubmit as a single article. Authors are encouraged to provide a written justification for submitting their work as a companion papers.
Invited papers and discussions may be eventually considered for publication. Discussions must comply with the ethical standards for publication of the JCI.
Note that all contributions must be free of evident commercialism or private interest, but must neither neglect references to trademarks[1] nor obscure proper description of products when required for the endorsement of the subject matter.

1.2.1 Submission of articles
Submission of an article implies that the work described has neither been previously published nor be under considered for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts based on materials available elsewhere may be considered for publication in JACT provided the manuscript has been extensively revised and given new significance. The published materials, however, must be supplied with such submission. If a previously published manuscript is considered of highly significance and its distribution has been very limited, the editor may waive the policy against dual publication.
Authors are recommended to submit the manuscript using our interactive forms and uploading system (this is the fastest and safest way for submission).
If the author cannot access to the Web site, please inquire to the following, or use the contact page.

Dr. S. Ohno, Editorial Secretary of JACT
E mail: secretary(at mark)
Japan Concrete Institute

1.2.2 Submission Process in the Editorial Manager System
(1) Submission process
New submission of manuscript is conducted as the following steps:
  • Slect Article Type: Please select the proper category from Scientific paper, Technical report, Review paper, and Discussion. If the different category is selected, the submission will be returned to the authors.
  • Attach Files: Browse or Drag and Drop the prepared manuscript etc. Item is selected from Manuscript, Figure, Table, and Other in accordance with the type of files..
  • Review Preferences: Please input the details of suggested reviewers such as Name, Degree, Institution, and E-mail. If avairable, the contribusion on the research topic is suggested to add as the reason. At least three reviewers are required to be suggested.
  • Comment: Authors can enter any comments to be sent to the Editorial Office. If the submission is for a Special issue, it is recommended to state it here.
  • Manuscript Data: Title, Abstract, and Authors may have been extracted from your manuscript file and have populated some or all of the fields. Authors should carefully review all fields for accuracy. All required information must be provided in order to proceed to building your submission PDF.

  • (2) Review Preferences
    When submitting a manuscript, the authors are required to provide preferable three or more reviewers for the smooth processing of the peer review. However, authors must select the appropriate researchers from different countries who have internationally renowned research results in the field of the research topic (It is preferable to select at least 2 experts from countries other than the country to which the authors belong). The authors cannot recommend researchers who are related to the authors' research team or who do not have sufficient research experience as a reviewer.


    2.1 File Format of Electronic Manuscripts
    For the initial submission, An MS Word document with a single column is preferred. When you submit the manuscript, the Editorial Manager (interactive forms and uploading) system can directly convert from MS Word or PostScript files to PDF files for our review work. We recommend using MS Word format since we can correct deficiencies in the initial submission and quickly prepare the final draft for publication.

    For the revised or final submission, the authors need to submit the manuscript in MS-Word format for the manuscript text, equations, tables, and artwork.

    2.2 Manuscript Layout and Typescript
    ・For Microsoft Word Files
    The manuscript text should be single-spaced, single-column format with generous margins. Use standard font families (Times, Helvetica, Arial or Symbol) with 12-point size for the entire text. Use italics for mathematical symbols (not for abbreviated names of functions such as sin, log) as well as the title of journals and books. Use boldface for title and headings as well as to denote vectors and matrices in mathematics. Use subscripts and superscripts for indices in mathematical and chemical symbols (dij, As, t2, f') or others when required (m2, °C). Most other formatting options such as hyphenation and justification will have to be removed and replaced during the processing of the article, hence keeping the layout as simple as possible.
    The artwork (figures, charts, and drawings) can be placed with a few line spaces at the preferred position in the text part but should not be embedded in the sentences. Do not embed "graphically designed" equations and tables. Equations should be prepared using MS Equation Editor or MathType. Tables should be prepared using MS Word and use grids or tabs to separate columns instead of spaces.


    3.1 Manuscript Requirements
    3.1.1 Length
    Manuscripts should not exceed 10000 words as word equivalents in length. Preferably, estimate the page length using the software's automatic word counters, such as MS Office. The authors also have to calculate the space of the artwork and tables. As a rough estimate, a page of artwork corresponds to 900 words, hence determining the length of artwork and tabular material in word-equivalents proportionally to the occupancy on a page; e.g., a figure measuring half-page in height would be equivalent to 500 words.
    Discussions and closures contributions should neither include artwork nor exceed 1800 words.
    If the authors consider that a manuscript with longer pages than the specified length is inevitable, please consult the editorial office in advance with the reason. Lengthy manuscripts might be reviewed after preliminary evaluation based on the article's necessity, budget, journal style, relevance, and composition. In such a case, the editor will reserve the right to remove tables, charts, or any artwork considered by the referees as unnecessary for a clear understanding of the subject. The article may be accepted after reviewing if the length is judged adequate to succinctly treatment of the subject. In this case, the time of publication may be longer than the usual cases.

    3.1.2 Style
    The text must be in concise English, and authors may adopt UK or US spelling but not combinations of both. As the ACT has an international audience, which includes non-native speakers of English, avoid colloquialisms and idioms (e.g., "connect" rather than "hook up," "system or apparatus" rather than "set up" as well as technical terms that are used only locally (e.g., "micron" obsolete technical slang used by some scientists and engineer to designate one millionth of a meter by the symbol μ, replaced in the SI by micrometer, symbol μm).
    Authors may write in active or passive voice but avoiding gender specific words (midshipman, craftsman, spokesman, she, he, his) and pronouns (I, you, we, our). Gender specific words may be understood as discriminatory or sexist language. The use of pronouns often results in poor or imprecise constructions or even mildly offensive.

    e.g., When you fail to make accurate measurements...;
    (inaccurate or mildly offensive)
    When the measurements are not accurate...;
    (introducing the potential consequences of inaccurate measurements)
    When the engineer fails to attain accurate measurements...;
    (draw attention to the dependency on the qualifications of the professional)
    The past tense is preferred to describe the actions in the development of the project or study, whereas the present tense is used to state the facts. For politeness, when referring to or discussing published works, particularly from primary Journals, regard them as facts, i.e., in the present tense.

    (1) Units:
    Authors must use consistent units throughout the article and according to the International System of Units (SI). Only units named for a person and when abbreviated should be capitalized (e.g. Hz, Pa, g but hertz, pascal, gram). Do not use metric prefixes such as M (Mega), m (milli), etc. when using exponential notation ("0.556 m/s" not "5.56x10-4 km/s". Use proper abbreviations, e.g. the correct abbreviated form of "seconds" is "s" whereas "sec." means secundum in accordance with, second, section, secant). Use space between numbers and units and a dot, space, or solidus (/) between compound units ("2 N m", "3 kg/m3 or 3 kg m-3).

    (2) Numbers:
    One-digit numbers should be spelled out, except where attached to a unit of quantity (e.g., 1 mm or 3 kg) or where expressions contrast or enumerate one-digit numbers with numbers of two or more digits ("3 out of 20 specimens", "5 mortar specimens and 15 concrete specimens". Numbers of two or more digits should be rendered in digits except where the context makes this awkward (e.g., use spelled-out forms at the beginning of a sentence).
    In numbers above 10 000, spaces may be used between sets of three digits but not commas (as it is a violation of international scientific and engineering practice and standards).The comma is the decimal mark in many countries and also in the SI. The SI allows the decimal point to be used in publications in English with spaces for the "Thousands" (e.g., 11 012.35).
    For numbers between -1 and 1, insert a zero to the left of the decimal point to make it more difficult for the reader to overlook the decimal point ("0.47 not .47").

    (3) Quantities:
    Use numbers instead of relative figures (small deformation, high stress) to present and discuss results. Relative figures are permissible only for assessing results and summarising conclusions. When intended to give a reference or assessment, provide a reference value in parenthesis, e.g. "...high temperatures (about 60 degree C)"

    (4) Abbreviations:
    Abbreviations may be used only when the term appears a few times in the text and should be spelled out in full next to its first appearance, e.g., high-performance concrete (HPC) or HPC (high-performance concrete). The rule aims to prevent possible misunderstandings and redundancies, e.g. HPC is also found in the literature as "high-performance cemen,t" "Helwan Portland cement," "hybridised Portland cement." HSC is usually used for "high-strength concrete," but in laboratories also for "high-speed centrifuge." In references to the finite element method (FEM), authors often repeat the word "method" as sentences appear not read well, e.g., "The FEM method was employed for the analysis."
    Abbreviations by initials should be typed with no full point (e.g., JSCE, JCI, HPC, FEM). Abbreviations in which the last letter of the abbreviation is the same as the last letter of the word should also have no full point (e.g., Mr, St, BUT no., str., etc.).

    (5) Headings:
    In separating articles under sections, make the headings indicative rather than explicative and preferably to fit in one line. Use numbering for the headings but only up to three levels (ex. 1, 2-1, (2)). Do not use the bullet.

    (6) Equations:
    Mathematical equations should only be used where absolutely necessary, and should be clear and easily understood by engineers. Each equation must appear in a separate line and be numbered consecutively, whether the number is necessary for cross-reference in the article or not. The number may be useful for reference in future works and discussion of the article. If the authors conclude eventually that the equation would have no significance for future reference, they should consider removing the equation. Only the relevant equations should be shown in the body text, and any development of an equation should appear, if essential, in an appendix or supplementary materials.

    (7) Symbols:
    Symbols occurring firstly in equations should be defined preferably in the margin below the equation, e.g., "...the stress field is proportional to the forcing function F(t) defined as:
    ai : response acceleration for ith mode,
    qi(t): general coordinate for ith mode."

    However, if the article contains long lists of symbols accompanying mathematical developments, they should not be presented in the body of the paper but at the end, in a Notation section containing all symbols. In both cases, authors must provide a notation list containing all symbols on a separate page, where is necessary to define all symbols and clarify potential ambiguities in typescripts (such as the number one and the letter "ell," zero and "oh," "double you" and lowercase Greek omega, levels of subscripts, superscripts, and exponents, etc.).
    The symbols in the Notation section and additional list are arranged with the capital letters preceding the lower case. The Roman alphabet is followed by the Greek one.

    (8) Figures:
    All artwork such as graphs, diagrams, and photographs should be categorized as Figure. They must have consecutive numbers as Figures, e.g., Fig. 1, Fig. 2..., but not Photo 1, 2...

    (9) Tables:
    Tables should read top to bottom and not left to right, and each column in a table must have a heading. Avoid abbreviations and equations, but when essential, use single-level equations (e.g., 1/(a + b)) and define abbreviations in the legend. Footnotes are acceptable in tables but not elsewhere.

    (10) Captions:
    All artwork and tabular material must be identified by title with a number, followed by the explanatory information. This material must not be lettered on the artwork

    (11) Acknowledgments:
    For expressing thanks to individuals and organizations for any help, advice, or financial assistance, include an Acknowledgments section after the Conclusion section. However, there is no need to express thanks to commercial services. Do not make any acknowledgments on the title page or elsewhere.

    (12) Appendixes and Supplementary materials
    Appendixes: Use appendixes to record details and data of secondary importance or needed to support assertions in the text. Make sure the text contains references to all appendixes. Define special symbols and other nomenclature in an Appendix. Appendices are limited to those essential to understanding the content of the paper.

    Supplementary materials: Authors can attach various materials not included in the articles to help the reader’s understanding as Supplementary materials, and the reader can reach those materials from the article’s bibliographic link. The supplementary materials can include experimental data, data sources used for analysis, visualized media, etc. Please note the Supplementary materials are different from the articles’ content and not subject to peer review, but the Editorial office checks whether they are acceptable for publication.

    Supplementary materials in J-Stage Data: Authors may also post a file of the Supplementary materials to the J-Stage Data repositories. The file is simultaneously published with the original article, assigned DOI, and linked to the original paper. When the author wants to post the Supplementary materials to the J-Stage Data repositories, please indicate it in the cover letter of the Supplementary materials and inform the Editorial Office ( of it.
    Please see the details of the J-Stage Data repositories at J-Stage Data at

    (13) Dates:
    Use the day-month-year system ("16 January 1990" not "January 16, 1990".

    3.1.3 Title of the Article
    Some information-retrieval services rely exclusively on the title of the articles. Hence, the title should be as short, concise, and informative as possible. It should not contain non-standard acronyms or abbreviations and should not exceed 80 characters, including spaces. Avoid titles beginning with "Analysis of...", "A Note on...", "Theory of...", "On the...", "Some...", "Toward a...", "Investigation on...", "A study on...", etc. Such openings are not helpful for the reader and are useless for information-retrieval purposes. Limit the title to words that highlight the significant content of the article both for understanding and retrieving purposes.

    3.1.4 Authors' Name and Affiliation
    Under the title of submission, type job title, full name and the affiliation of each author . Under the name of the corresponding author, type the e-mail address, the author's current affiliation and complete address. Former affiliation is permissible only if the author has changed affiliation after the submission of the work. Changes in the number, names and order of the authors are not possible after the initial submission.

    3.1.5 Abstract
    The abstract used in primary Journals is often referred to as informative type (rather than the indicative type) and designed to condense the article. It should not be viewed as a part of the text and should be complete in itself. It may be better understood as a brief description of all sections of the article. Hence, the abstract should (1) state the principal objectives and scope of the investigation or project, (2) describe the general methodology employed, (3) summarize the results, (4) and state the principal conclusions.
    Abstracts are often used for information retrieval and therefore have a major role in promoting articles. They should be succinctly and clearly written within a maximum of 200 words. As it should stand alone, it must not contain abbreviations and mathematical expressions nor any specialized terms that may not be understandable in itself. References to other literature should be avoided, but if essential, then they should be cited in full and not included in the reference list at the end.

    3.1.6 References
    Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors.
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the Abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
    Authors should cite references primarily from English-language literature for the international reader to be able to access and understand the contents.

    (1) Citations in the text:
    All statements, opinions, conclusions, etc. taken from another writer's work should be cited, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarized. Do not abbreviate titles of publications and for Journals cite the full name or the library abbreviation of the name. Cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author's surname and the year of publication in one of the forms shown below. If details of particular parts of a document are required, e.g. page numbers, they should be given after the year within the parentheses.
    +If the author's name occurs naturally in the sentence the year is given in parentheses:
    e.g. In a popular study Hillerborg (1988, p.172) argued that ...
    +If, however, the name does not occur naturally in the sentence, both name and year are given in parentheses:
    e.g. More recent studies (Schorn 1991, 1993; Schlangen 1993) show that ...
    +When an author has published more than one cited document in the same year, these are distinguished by adding lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year and within the parentheses:
    e.g. Slowik (1990b) discussed the subject ...
    +If there are two authors, the surnames of both should be given:
    e.g. Tazawa and Miyazawa (1993) have proposed that...
    +If there are more than two authors the surname of the first author only should be given, followed by et al.:
    e.g.Bazant et al. (2000) conclude that...
    +If the author is anonymous then "Anon" should be used:
    e.g.A recent article (Anon 1993) stated that...
    However, if it is a reference to newspapers or magazines where no author is given, the name of the paper can be used in place of author or Anon whichever seems most helpful. You will need to use the same style in the reference list so the name of the newspaper may be more helpful.
    e.g.The Japan Concrete Institute (1996) stated that....
    +If you refer to a source quoted in another work you cite both in the text:
    e.g.A study by Neville (1960 cited Nakamura et al. 2000, p.233) showed...
    (You need to place the work you have used, i.e. Jones, in the reference list.)
    +Short quotations of less than a line may be included in the body of the text in quotation marks. If the quatation is longer, start a new line and indent it. Include the page number if desired. "good practices must be taught" (Kim 1996, p.15) and we should...
    or:Theory rises out of practice, and once validated, returns to direct or explain the practice (Stevens 1997, pp.92-93).
    +Citing a Web site within the text of an assignment, give the address of the site (e.g. To cite a document from a Web site you must follow the author-date format. In both cases an entry will still be required in the reference list.

    (2) Reference list:
    A list of references contains details only of those works cited in the text. The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order of the first author on a separate page. Where an item has no author it is cited by its title, and ordered in the reference list in sequence by the first significant word of the title. The use of the expression et al. (= et alia) to indicate multiple authorship is permissible in the text, but not in the list of references, where all names should be given.
    Each entry in the reference list should use the elements and punctuation given in the following examples for the different types of published work you may have cited:

    +Reference to a book
    Author's Surname, INITIALS., (Year of publication). "Title." Edition. (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.
    e.g. Metha, P. K. and Monteiro, P.  G. M., (1993). "Concrete: Structure, properties, and methods." 2nd ed.New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

    +Reference to a contribution in a book
    Contributing author's Surname, INITIALS., (Year of publication). "Title of contribution." Followed by In: INITIALS. Surname, of author or editor of publication followed by Ed. or Eds (if applicable). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, Page number(s) of contribution.
    e.g. Topping, B. H. V., (1999). "Neural networks in advanced computational problems." In: Z. Waszczyszyn Ed. Neural Networks in the Analysis and Design of Structures. Wien: Springer-Verlag, 197-248.

    +Reference to an article in a journal
    Author's Surname, INITIALS., (Year of publication). "Title of article." Title of journal, Volume number and (part number), Page numbers of contribution.
    e.g. Zaitsev, Y. B. and Wittmann, F. H., (1984). "Simulation of crack propagation and failure of concrete." Materials and Structures, 14 (83), 357-365.

    +Reference to a conference paper
    Contributing author's Surname, INITIALS.,(Year of publication). "Title of contribution." Followed by In: INITIALS. Surname, of editor of conference proceedings (if applicable) followed by Ed. or Eds. Title of conference proceedings including date and place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers of contribution.
    e.g. Springenschmid, R., (2002). "Experimental research on surface cracking of concrete." In: H. Mihashi and F. H. Wittmann, Eds. International conference on control cracking of early age concrete, Sendai 23-24 August 2000. Lisse: A.A. Balkema Publishers, 1-8.

    +Reference to a publication from a corporate body
    Name of Issuing Body, (Year of publication). "Title of publication." Place of publication: Publisher, Report Number (where relevant).
    e.g. JSCE, (1985). "Standard specification for design and construction of concrete structures." Tokyo: Japan Society of Civil Engineers,
    or RILEM, (1998). "Prevention of thermal cracking in concrete at early ages." R. Springenschmid, Ed. London: FN Spon. RILEM report 15.

    +Reference to a thesis and a report (not regularly published)
    Author's Surname, INITIALS., (Year of publication). "Title of thesis." Designation, (and type). Name of institution to which submitted.
    Author's Surname, INITIALS., (Year of publication). "Title of reports." Report name, Number, Name of institution as a publisher.
    Author's Surname, INITIALS., (Year of publication). "Title of reports (Report No. or ID)." Place of publication: Name of institution as a publisher.
    e.g. Walraven, J. C., (1980). "Aggregate interlock: a theoretical and experimental analysis.." Thesis (PhD). Delft University of Technology.
    Graybeal, B., (2006). "Material property characterization of ultra-high performance concrete (FHWA-HRT-06-103)." McLean, Virginia: US Federal Highway Administration.

    +Reference to a code or a standard
    Abbreviation of Standard Institution, (Year of publication). "Title of code (Standard name)." Standard Institution, Place of publication: Publisher.
    ASTM, (2018). "Concrete and aggregate (ASTM C33/C33M-18)." American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken Pennsylvania: ASTM International.
    or BS, (1983). "Method for determination of compressive strength of concrete cubes (BS 1881-116)." British Standard, London: The British Standard Limited.
    or SAC, (2008). "Code for design of concrete structures (GB 50010-2010)." The Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press.

    +Reference to a patent
    Originator, (Date of publication). "Title of patent." Series designation.
    e.g. Philip Morris Inc., (1981). "Optical perforating apparatus and system." European patent application 0021165 A1.

    +Reference to a non-alphabetical article
    Translate the bibliographical data into English and attach the name of the original language in parenthesis to the end of the data.
    e.g. Takahashi, Y. and Suzuki, I., (1984). "Simulation of crack propagation and failure of concrete." Concrete Research and Technology, 2 (1), 67-75. (in Japanese)

    (3) Citing electronic sources:
    Citation in the text must follow the author-date procedure as outlined above.
    References End of a Work:

    +Reference to individual works
    Author/editor, (Year). "Title [online]." (Edition). Place of publication, Publisher if ascertainable). Available from: <URL> [Accessed Date].
    e.g. Holland, M., (1996)."Harvard system[online]." Poole, Bournemouth University. Available from:
    <> [Accessed 18 Feb 1999].
    or Library Services, (1995). "Internet user glossary [online]." North Carolina, North Carolina State University. Available from:
    <gopher://> [Accessed 18 Feb 1999].

    +Reference to article in E-Journals
    Authorユs Surname, INITIALS., (Year). "Title." Journal Title [online], volume (issue), location within host. Available from: <URL> [Accessed Date].
    e.g. Tazawa, E.-I., (1998). "Effect of self stress on flexural strength of gypsum-polymer composites." Advanced Cement Based Materials [online], 7 (1). Available from:
    <> [Accessed 20 Feb 2002].

    +Reference to article in conference
    Authorユs Surname, INITIALS., (Year of publication). "Title of contribution." Followed by In: INITIALS. Surname, of editor of conference proceedings (if applicable) followed by Ed. or Eds. Title of conference proceedings including date and place of conference location within host. Available from: <URL> [Accessed Date].
    e.g. Slowik, V., Leite, J. P. B. and Zaitsev, Y. V., (2000). "Mesolevel modelling of concrete fracture by using particle and truss models." In Werkstoffwoche-Partnerschaft Ed. Materials Week 2000 - Proceedings [online], conference on advanced materials, their processing & applications, Munich, Germany, Sept. 25-28, 2000. Available from:
    <> [Accessed 10 May 2001].
    +Reference to electronic media(BPO) : [2]
    Author/editorユs Surname, INITIALS., (Year). "Title [type of medium]. (Edition)." Place of publication, Publisher (if ascertainable). Available from: Supplier/Database identifier or number (optional).
    e.g. Bogaerts, W. F. L., (1998). "Active library on corrosion 2.0: an interactive adventure [CD-ROM]." Elsevier Science.

    3.2 Recommended Structure of the Article
    3.2.1 Introduction
    The purposes of this section are: (1) present sufficient background information for the understanding and evaluation of the results of the reported study, as well as their relationship to earlier work in the field; and (2) provide the purpose and validation for the present study. It should not, in general, exceed two typed pages.
    Unanimous rules for a good Introduction are: (1) present the problem investigated or project reported, in terms of nature and scope; (2) review of the pertinent literature, but only at the required extent to orient the reader; and (3) state the chosen methods and perhaps the reasons for the choice, but not describing them.
    As for promoting technical and scientific matter, an extra rule is also convenient to capture the attention of the reader: (4) advance in condensed and highlighted manner the principal result or conclusion suggested by the results, which will be substantiated in later sections. The reason behind the latter rule is that otherwise a reader initially planning to study the entire article might naturally neglect the abstract and loose motivation to read the article to the end.

    3.2.2 Methods and Materials
    The purpose of this section is to provide sufficient information on methodology and materials employed, so that competent professionals can reproduce the experiments, numerical simulations or projects reported. For scientific and technical merit, the possibility of reproduction of same or similar results must exist. In case of serious doubt about the viability for reproducing the work, reviewers are encouraged to reject the manuscript.
    Provide the exact technical specifications and quantities of materials, as well as source or method of preparation. Statements and references should be accurate but free of speculative or advertising material. The text should not refer to the names of individuals, organizations, products or services unless it is essential to understanding and in neither complementary nor derogatory.
    The Methods and Materials section usually has subheadings, which usually depend on the nature of the reported work (e.g. experimental and/or analytical). Examples of usual elements of a Methods and Materials section are: (a) the procedures for preparing materials, for setting or operating equipment, and for performing measurements, (b) the detailed description of equipments, specimens and constitutive materials, in terms of dimensions, quantities, sources and conditions, (c) the analytical modelling and assumptions; (d) the aspects of mathematical simulations and analyses; (e) evaluation approaches and criteria.
    Only methods or their variations, which are truly new or have not been accurately presented in the literature, should be described. Others should be only cited with appropriate references.

    3.2.3 Results and Discussion
    The Results and Discussion may eventually be separated into two independent sections when the article presents a large volume of raw data in text, tabular or graphical form. Though in this case further care is required to avoid redundancies in the sections.The Results section would present the factual data to substantiate the discussion and conclusions in subsequent sections. Results are presented in figures and tables and some results not requiring documentation are given solely in the text. Do not repeat tabular and graphical data in text and if you adopt separate sections, leave the discussion for the subsequent section. Preferably, use absolute numbers and allow the reader evaluate the results. Only use statistics and relative numbers if they are meaningful and the more logical way of presenting the results.
    The discussion should be concise and focused on the interpretation of the results rather than a repetition of the Results section. In the Discussion section, (1) Derive principles, relationships and generalizations based on the presented results, (2) point out exceptions, lack of correlations and any unsettled points and provide known or hypothetical reasons for them, (3) demonstrate how your results and interpretations agree or contrast with the previous work, (4) provide the evidence for each conclusion, and (5) discuss the potential applications of your work.
    The subheadings of the results should preferably match those of the methods.

    3.2.4 Conclusion
    In the Conclusion section, summarize the conclusions based on evidence provided in the article and highlight the significance of the results and/or project. Avoid cite previous work in the Conclusion section. Indicate the potential applicability of proposed methods, with assessments if possible. In research related articles, authors may recommend further directions of the research, as suggested by the results presented in the article.

    4. Ethical attention

    4.1 Authorship
    Authorship should be limited to the persons who have made a substantial contribution to the conception, design, execution, analysis, or interpretation of the study of the submitted article. After the initial submission, Changes in the number, name, and order of the authors are not allowed, as shown in section 3.1.4. The secondary contributors, such as cooperators or advisors in the revision, should be expressed gratitude in the section of acknowledgments.

    4.2 Plagiarism
    Authors should write a completely original article, and authors should not use the same sentences or paragraphs taken from other articles. Even if the copied parts are taken from your articles published previously, the act without proper citations may infringe the right of copyright holders. The authors should check whether the publishers allow the reuse of the contents and how much you can reuse them. Activities such as composing paragraphs with sentences taken from previously published articles or articles on the internet are considered ethical violations. If we have found these prominent acts, we will not receive the manuscript for review.

    4.3 Duplicate publications and simultaneous submissions
    Submitting the same or a very similar manuscript to two or more journals is unethical. If we find a duplicate submission in this journal, we will withdraw the article and remove the published paper.


    5.1 Transfer of Copyright
    Before JACT can publish any article, the copyright must be transferred to the Japan Concrete Institute. Transfer of copyright helps JCI to make articles more widely accessible across different media, whether supplementing or replacing printed versions, and hence ensures that the research gains global promotion. This transfer agreement enables JCI to protect the copyrighted material for the authors, but does not relinquish the author's proprietary rights.
    Copyright of articles is assigned to JCI from the date on which the article is submitted for publication, and therefore a simultaneous submission of the article (or similar material) for publication elsewhere is a breach of Copyright.

    Authors are asked to submit a completed Copyright Transfer Agreement in hardcopy [3]. This CTA appears on the JACT's Web site and must be completed, signed and sent with the final manuscript or the author proof reading. If the author cannot assign copyright then an agreement giving License to Publish will be required instead. Please consult our Editorial secretary if the standard form is not appropriate for your circumstances.
    Authors who may not own the copyright (e.g. authors in industrial companies or government research establishments) are asked to state this explicitly.
    In the case of multi-author papers, only one author needs to sign the CTA form after obtaining the consent of all the other authors and send the signed CTA back to the Editorial secretary of JACT.
    The copyright transfer covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, photographic reproductions, microfilm or any other reproductions of similar nature and translations. This includes the right to adapt the article for use in conjunction with computer systems and programs, including reproduction or publication in machine-readable form and incorporation in retrieval systems.

    5.2 Copying JACT Articles
    The author retains, to the extent provided by law, the right to the fair use of the manuscript for various purposes such as teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use) and other non-profit educational purposes. Reproduction of journals or parts of journals, whether is in paper or in electronic media, requires permission from JCI. Permission for reproduction of illustrations, tables and short extracts from the text of individual articles published in JACT is usually granted upon request to the editorial secretary, provided that the original source of the material is acknowledged in each case and the permission of the authors is also obtained.

    5.3 Reproducing Published Material
    Authors who wish to publish figures or charts previously in print must obtain written permission from the respective authors and publishers. Approval from the publisher is required regardless of the published material being from the same authors. Permission is also required if the translated or extended manuscript from the previously published Japanese article is published as a secondary publication. For most publishers, the granting of copyright permission is usually routine. JACT cannot publish a manuscript without such written permissions, which must be attached as other materials in JACT's submission system (Editorial manager). Responsibility for the terms and conditions of the approval belongs to the author.


    6.1 Refereeing Process
    A contribution submitted for consideration for publication is a confidential matter until its final release for publication. The aim of the evaluation system is to maintain the quality of material to be published and to reduce the time lag between receipt and publication of acceptable papers. When papers fail to meet certain minimum standards, they are promptly rejected. Reasons for such rejection may be:
    +Evident lack of significance
    +Material little different from some previous publication
    +Hopelessly poor organization and composition
    +Subject matter out of the scope of JACT
    +Subject apparently of interest to too few readers
    Every contribution submitted for publication is given preliminary review by a staff committee. Manuscripts of regular articles, which successfully undergoes preliminary review, will be further reviewed by at least two experts, in the area of concentration of the manuscript, selected by the editor from a pool of approved referees. Referees are asked to take into account the content, quality and presentation of the article when reaching their recommendations.
    On completion of review of a manuscript, the author will be advised promptly whether it has been accepted or rejected and recommended to revise the manuscript in the light of the referees' comments. If referees give conflicting advice, a senior referee will be consulted for the settlement of the matter in dispute. If the referees recommend rejection of an article, the authors may appeal to the Editorial Board for further consideration, stating in writing the substantial reasons for their appeal. The manuscript may be then sent to a new group of reviewers on the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.
    Manuscripts with two positive reviews are accepted after the appropriate corrections. However, a manuscript after final submission may still be declined if the author did not revise the manuscript as required by the reviewers, if new material was introduced that is considered to be of unacceptable quality, or if additional errors are found.
    When the review shows that the article could be improved by condensation, the author will be asked to do so. Means of condensation and conservation of space might be through omission of tables in favour of graphs showing the same thing, putting parts of the paper in appendixes, which can be set in smaller type and condensation of relatively unimportant discussion. Certain editorial prerogatives are reserved to the editor, e.g., format, punctuation, abbreviation, and minor revision for greater clarity.
    Electronic refereeing facility has been implemented and referees are strongly encouraged to report via the web or by E-mail to speed up the review process. Articles submitted electronically will be converted into a PDF file, unless this has been supplied, and provided to the referees with instructions to enable them to use our facilities for refereeing.
    The authors of a manuscript rejected due to obvious misconstructions of reviewers can, if necessary, request for reinvestigation to JACT.

    6.2 Revising the Article
    Submitting a revised or amended version of your article in response to the referee's comments, authors are advised to compare the original version with the revised one and list any changes you have made (ignoring typographical errors, but mentioning additional paragraphs, changes to figures, etc).
    Alternatively, authors may also send in a second copy of your article with the changes marked or underlined. The changes made in response to the referees' remarks should have a distinct marking. If this is detailed enough, it can eliminate the need to provide a separate "list of changes".
    Authors should go through the referees' comments and for each comment mention whether the suggestion was followed or the author disagree and wish to respond to the comment.

    6.3 Proofreading the Article
    Proofs of articles are usually sent to the corresponding authors by E-mail as an annotated PDF file attachment for correction.
    Authors should check your proofs carefully and return corrections by E-mail, if possible. In such a case, the corrections should be sent as a list with each correction given a precise location in terms of, for example, page and line number. Please do not amend the PDF file or send an amended manuscript at this stage. If not possible to send the corrections by E-mail, authors can also send corrections by fax, first-class post or airmail. In this case the corrections should be marked clearly in the text.
    The ultimate responsibility for ensuring the accuracy of the published paper rests with authors. If proofs reach authors during an absence of which JACT has not been informed, or if the proofs are not returned within requested time, JACT may publish the paper without author's corrections.
    When proofreading the manuscripts authors should take particular care checking mathematics, tables and references. Only essential corrections should be made. Authors may be charged for excessive corrections arising from their own errors or omissions.

    6.4 Author Enquiries
    Authors can examine the progress of their submitted articles by using the Tracking System feature of JACT's Web site.
    Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, are provided when an article is accepted for publication.

    7.1 Errata
    If errors appear in the published PDF file that are serious enough to impair understanding or mislead readers, the author should prepare a correction, which will be published in our electronic repository J-Stage. Minor errors may only be considered as attachments of electronic reprints. Errata are also published with closures.

    7.2 Closures
    When discussions are received and approved for publication, the authors of the original paper are asked to prepare a closure, i.e., a response that provides clarification of and conclusions to the points raised in the discussions. Closures are published together with the discussions.

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    [1] Official trademarks such as Teflon and Lycra. [Back]
    [2] This section refers to electronic media (e.g. CD-ROMs) that works in their own right (Business Publication Ondisc) and not bibliographic databases. [Back]
    [3] the hardcopy of the Copyright Transfer Agreement (CTA) should be send by e-mail or post. Papers are only considered for publication after the arrival of the CTA. [Back]